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[Merge] ~wesley-wiedenmeier/cloud-init:logging-docs into cloud-init:master


Wesley Wiedenmeier has proposed merging ~wesley-wiedenmeier/cloud-init:logging-docs into cloud-init:master.

Requested reviews:
  cloud init development team (cloud-init-dev)

For more details, see:

Add documentation for cloud-init's logging features.
Your team cloud init development team is requested to review the proposed merge of ~wesley-wiedenmeier/cloud-init:logging-docs into cloud-init:master.
diff --git a/cloudinit/config/cc_rsyslog.py b/cloudinit/config/cc_rsyslog.py
index 48f1862..1c12e56 100644
--- a/cloudinit/config/cc_rsyslog.py
+++ b/cloudinit/config/cc_rsyslog.py
@@ -18,6 +18,8 @@
 #    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 #    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+.. _cc_rsyslog:
 **Summary:** configure system loggig via rsyslog
diff --git a/doc/rtd/index.rst b/doc/rtd/index.rst
index fe04b1a..f8ff3c9 100644
--- a/doc/rtd/index.rst
+++ b/doc/rtd/index.rst
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ Summary
+   topics/logging
diff --git a/doc/rtd/topics/logging.rst b/doc/rtd/topics/logging.rst
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b010aa9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/doc/rtd/topics/logging.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,175 @@
+Cloud-init supports both local and remote logging configurable through python's
+built-in logging configuration and through the cloud-init rsyslog module.
+Command Output
+Cloud-init can redirect its stdout and stderr based on config given under the
+``output`` config key. The output of any commands run by cloud-init and any
+user or vendor scripts provided will also be included here. The ``output``
+key accepts a dictionary for configuration. Output files may be specified
+individually for each stage (``init``, ``config``, and ``final``), or a single
+key ``all`` may be used to specify output for all stages.
+The output for each stage may be specified as a dictionary of ``output`` and
+``error`` keys, for stdout and stderr respectively, as a tuple with stdout
+first and stderr second, or as a single string to use for both. The strings
+passed to all of these keys are handled by the system shell, so any form of
+redirection that can be used in bash is valid, including piping cloud-init's
+output to ``tee``, or ``logger``. If only a filename is provided, cloud-init
+will append its output to the file as though ``>>`` was specified.
+By default, cloud-init loads its output configuration from
+``/etc/cloud/coud.cfg.d/05_logging.cfg``. The default config directs both
+stdout and stderr from all cloud-init stages to
+``/var/log/cloud-init-output.log``. The default config is given as ::
+    output: { all: "| tee -a /var/log/cloud-init-output.log" }
+For a more complex example, the following configuration would output the init
+stage to ``/var/log/cloud-init.out`` and ``/var/log/cloud-init.err``, for
+stdout and stderr respectively, replacing anything that was previously there.
+For the config stage, it would pipe both stdout and stderr through
+``tee -a /var/log/cloud-config.log``. For the final stage it would append the
+output of stdout and stderr to ``/var/log/cloud-final.out`` and
+``/var/log/cloud-final.err`` respectively. ::
+    output:
+        init:
+            output: "> /var/log/cloud-init.out"
+            error: "> /var/log/cloud-init.err"
+        config: "tee -a /var/log/cloud-config.log"
+        final:
+            - ">> /var/log/cloud-final.out"
+            - "/var/log/cloud-final.err"
+Python Logging
+Cloud-init uses the python logging module, and can accept config for this
+module using the standard python fileConfig format. Cloud-init looks for config
+for the logging module under the ``logcfg`` key.
+.. note::
+    the logging configuration is not yaml, it is python ``fileConfig`` format,
+    and is passed through directly to the python logging module. please use the
+    correct syntax for a multi-line string in yaml.
+By default, cloud-init uses the logging configuration provided in
+``/etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/05_logging.cfg``. The default python logging
+configuration writes all cloud-init events with a priority of ``WARNING`` or
+higher to console, and writes all events with a level of ``DEBUG`` or higher
+to ``/var/log/cloud-init.log`` and via syslog.
+Python's fileConfig format consists of sections with headings in the format
+``[title]`` and key value pairs in each section. Configuration for python
+logging must contain the sections ``[loggers]``, ``[handlers]``, and
+``[formatters]``, which name the entities of their respective types that will
+be defined. The section name for each defined logger, handler and formatter
+will start with its type, followed by an underscore (``_``) and the name of the
+entity. For example, if a logger was specified with the name ``log01``, config
+for the logger would be in the section ``[logger_log01]``.
+Logger config entries contain basic logging set up. They may specify a list of
+handlers to send logging events to as well as the lowest priority level of
+events to handle. A logger named ``root`` must be specified and its
+configuration (under ``[logger_root]``) must contain a level and a list of
+handlers. A level entry can be any of the following: ``DEBUG``, ``INFO``,
+``WARNING``, ``ERROR``, ``CRITICAL``, or ``NOTSET``. For the ``root`` logger
+the ``NOTSET`` option will allow all logging events to be recorded.
+Each configured handler must specify a class under the python's ``logging``
+package namespace. A handler may specify a message formatter to use, a priority
+level, and arguments for the handler class. Common handlers are
+``StreamHandler``, which handles stream redirects (i.e. logging to stderr),
+and ``FileHandler`` which outputs to a log file. The logging module also
+supports logging over net sockets, over http, via smtp, and additional
+complex configurations. For full details about the handlers available for
+python logging, please see the documentation for `python logging handlers`_.
+Log messages are formatted using the ``logging.Formatter`` class, which is
+configured using ``formatter`` config entities. A default format of
+``%(message)s`` is given if no formatter configs are specified. Formatter
+config entities accept a format string which supports variable replacements.
+These may also accept a ``datefmt`` string which may be used to configure the
+timestamp used in the log messages. The format variables ``%(asctime)s``,
+``%(levelname)s`` and ``%(message)s`` are commonly used and represent the
+timestamp, the priority level of the event and the event message. For
+additional information on logging formatters see `python logging formatters`_.
+.. note::
+    by default the format string used in the logging formatter are in python's
+    old style ``%s`` form. the ``str.format()`` and ``string.Template`` styles
+    can also be used by using ``{`` or ``$`` in place of ``%`` by setting the
+    ``style`` parameter in formatter config.
+A simple, but functional python logging configuration for cloud-init is below.
+It will log all messages of priority ``DEBUG`` or higher both stderr and
+``/tmp/my.log`` using a ``StreamHandler`` and a ``FileHandler``, using
+the default format string ``%(message)s``::
+  logcfg: |
+   [loggers]
+   keys=root,cloudinit
+   [handlers]
+   keys=ch,cf
+   [formatters]
+   keys=
+   [logger_root]
+   level=DEBUG
+   handlers=
+   [logger_cloudinit]
+   level=DEBUG
+   qualname=cloudinit
+   handlers=ch,cf
+   [handler_ch]
+   class=StreamHandler
+   level=DEBUG
+   args=(sys.stderr,)
+   [handler_cf]
+   class=FileHandler
+   level=DEBUG
+   args=('/tmp/my.log',)
+For additional information about configuring python's logging module, please
+see the documentation for `python logging config`_.
+Rsyslog Module
+Cloud-init's ``cc_rsyslog`` module allows for fully customizable rsyslog
+configuration under the ``rsyslog`` config key. The simplest way to
+use the rsyslog module is by specifying remote servers under the ``remotes``
+key in ``rsyslog`` config. The ``remotes`` key takes a dictionary where each
+key represents the name of an rsyslog server and each value is the
+configuration for that server. The format for server config is:
+ - optional filter for log messages (defaults to ``*.*``)
+ - optional leading ``@`` or ``@@``, indicating udp and tcp respectively
+   (defaults to ``@``, for udp)
+ - ipv4 or ipv6 hostname or address. ipv6 addresses must be in ``[::1]``
+   format, (e.g. ``@[fd00::1]:514``)
+ - optional port number (defaults to ``514``)
+For example, to send logging to an rsyslog server named ``log_serv`` with
+address ````, using port number ``514``, over udp, with all log
+messages enabled one could use either of the following.
+With all options specified::
+    rsyslog:
+        remotes:
+            log_serv: "*.* @"
+With defaults used::
+    rsyslog:
+        remotes:
+            log_serv: ""
+For more information on rsyslog configuration, see :ref:`cc_rsyslog`.
+.. _python logging config: https://docs.python.org/3/library/logging.config.html#configuration-file-format
+.. _python logging handlers: https://docs.python.org/3/library/logging.handlers.html
+.. _python logging formatters: https://docs.python.org/3/library/logging.html#formatter-objects